With a growing interest in the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of Boswellic acids, Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), Incensole and Incensole Acetate which are found in 3 types of Frankincense, the market for Frankincense products is growing rapidly.
Identified to date in only 3 types of Frankincense-Boswellia Serrata from India, B. Papyrifera from Ethiopia, and B. Sacra/Carterii from Arabia and East Africa, (See dissert. Michael P. pg. 137.) , these compounds are resin acids and make up the heavier resin portion of these oleo gum resins, which can not be steam or hydro distilled. For this reason, Boswellic acids are NOT naturally present in their essential oils in any significant amount .( See Wikipedia-Boswellic acids)
Unfortunately, there is not much clear information online and most of our education comes from the marketing division of essential oil companies and others who benefit from their sale, often at highly inflated prices due to claims of Boswellic acid content. This has led to some deep-rooted misinformation, unrealistic expectations and risky use of essential oils.
This increase in Frankincense essential oil sales has far-reaching impact all the way back to the harvesters and the trees. For lack of space and to keep on topic, I won’t expound on it further here. Suffice to say, at the very least, we are participating in a supreme waste of precious natural resources since the Boswellic acids are only present in minute amounts in the essential oils and after distilling them to meet our market demand, the main body of the resin which actually does contain all the Boswellic acids, is usually discarded or sold as a substandard incense material.
If we are being misinformed, and the Boswellic acids are not present in significant therapeutic levels in the essential oils, then where do we find them, and how can we utilize them safely for their healing potential?
Well, I’m happy you asked…
To my knowledge and in my experience, there are 5 ways to utilize these healing compounds, easily and safely, for external and internal use.
5 safe and rich sources of Boswellic acids from Frankincense
- Using the whole fresh oleo gum resin, frozen, ground and as a powder. (See “How to grind Frankincense and Myrrh”). I take 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon, 3 to 4 times a day. I swoosh it around in my mouth with water to break up any lumps and find it a stimulating tonic and excellent anti-inflammatory. Grind very fine and in the case of the three aforementioned Frankincense types, keep the powder in a sealed container and frozen between uses to avoid re-solidifying. I promise to elaborate further on this method in an upcoming post.
- Making a fixed oil, oleo extract/infusion with vegetable oil, which will dissolve most of the volatile oils and resin. (See “How to make an extract of Frankincense and other oleoresins”).
- Using a solvent such as alcohol to produce a tincture or extract, which will capture all the resin based compounds and essential oils. (See below).
- Washing out all the water soluble gum using heat and water to isolate a pure oleoresin. (Tapping into Frankincense and its Boswellic acids).
- Purchasing an extract of Boswellic acids. There are a few patented processes and products on the market that offer a 60%-65% concentration of Boswellic acids. Most use a combination of water and alcohol as solvents, so no harsh chemicals are involved in the extraction process. For internal use ,and likely not suited for the preparation of salves, cremes or other external applications.
Making a Tincture of Frankincense or Myrrh
The word tincture comes from latin and means “to dye or colour”, referring to the menstruum, or the solvent liquid receiving the colour or character of the material it is extracting. Our English word, “tinge”, shares the same etymological root.
The word Menstruum is rooted in Old English and Latin. From the word “Mensis”, it refers to the liquid solvent we use to extract the therapeutic compounds from plant material and its meaning is “a month”, not just any month, but a Lunar month which we see implied in the words menses and menstrual. This is important since Astrologically, the Moon “rules” and influences all things fluid, as seen in the ebb and flow of the tides most obviously. This knowledge can be put to good use when we are preparing high-quality tinctures and other fluid plant preparations.
Tinctures offer us a convenient and effective method to extract and utilize the active compounds in medicinal and fragrant plants, and are just as useful now as in centuries past. Tincturing will separate the soluble, active compounds from cellulose, bark, starches and other non-active components. Though, in theory, different solvents such as petroleum distillates, Acetone, Glycerin, and Acetic Acid will also dissolve medicinal compounds, alcohol is considered now, as in centuries past, the “Universal solvent”, and still held as the best tincturing medium or menstruum available to us.
Water acts as a solvent for water-soluble compounds only. and has no ability to preserve itself as a tincture. For this reason products collected via water have a very short shelf life. A tea can be considered a tincture of sorts as can an infusion or decoction, however, they are limited in the range of compounds they can absorb and by their inability to keep for more than a few days before succumbing to bacteria and moulds.
Alcohol will mix readily with water and even when present at a very low percent, will help preserve a tincture. This means that an alcohol-water mixture can capture both the water-soluble and the alcohol-soluble compounds, and will preserve them all for future use.
This is especially important since both Frankincense and Myrrh are not pure oleoresins, but oleo gum resins. Each containing varying amounts of water-soluble gum along with their alcohol-soluble resins and volatile oils. Gums which will not be absorbed or dissolved by alcohol but only by water. These gums are not as well studied or understood to date and we may wish to include them in our tinctures and medicine for different reasons.
Though the method of making a tincture from Frankincense is fairly straightforward, there are different types of Frankincense that can be used for different purposes and there are alcohols of varying water/alcohol ratios we can choose from for different applications.
A high-proof alcohol that contains little water, will extract mainly the volatile oils and resin from oleo-gum-resins and little of the water-soluble gum. An alcohol with more water in it such as a 40% alcohol, also termed, 80 proof, will dissolve and hold a reflective proportion of the water-soluble gum when one is working with Frankincense and Myrrh. We can control the percent of gum in a tincture by adjusting the % of water in our alcohol/water tincturing menstruum.
Alcohol based tinctures offer us a simple, safe, effective and practical method to capture and deliver these resin acids and other healing compounds including the essential oils.
Tinctures can be used alone, to make compound medicines with other plant tinctures, or contribute to syrups, liqueurs, liniments and other products for our health and enjoyment. Tinctures can also be a starting point for medicinal extracts and natural perfume absolutes of fragrant plant material from which the alcohol is later evaporated.
Below are 3 different types of tinctures one can make with Frankincense or Myrrh depending on our needs.
A Simple Tincture of Frankincense or Myrrh
An everyday and all-purpose tincture and medicinal. Simple, straightforward and easily made in any home. This sets out the basic method for the following alternative and more complex processes. It is these fundamental processes, combined with practice, knowledge, experience and vision that can lead to a mastery of the art reflected in products that can transform, and transcend the mundane.
- In a clean resealable glass vessel place 1 ounce or 30 grams finely powdered, fresh Frankincense or Myrrh oleo gum resin. See the post, “How to grind Frankincense and Myrrh” to avoid delays and learning the hard way. A larger jar is preferred to a small one. A good volume of space above the liquid encourages a microcosmic environment where vapours will naturally rise with the ambient heat, condense, collect and rejoin your menstruum. Much as in Nature. You can of course, double, triple or quadruple this formula as long as you keep the same ratio.
- To the powdered oleo gum resin add a Vodka of your choice, unflavoured and at least 40% alcohol or 80 proof. You can use Brandy or even Whisky as long as it is unflavoured and with no additives.
- At a ratio of 1:5, add 150 Ml. of your alcohol to the powdered material. This is the standard acceptable ratio for tincturing dry plant material in most Herbal circles.
- Run a tiny bit of vegetable oil on your finger, around the thread of the jar, almost to the lip. This will ensure the lid is not sealed close by resin that seeps in through capillary action while you are shaking the tincture daily. Hand tighten the lid on the jar.
- Place in a relatively warm place.
- Shake at least once daily making sure all the material is dislodged from the glass each time.
- Continue the maceration for at least 1 full moon cycle, approximately 4 weeks. Ideally 1 1/2 or 2 cycles, and it can be left indefinitely with no harm. Always plan and time your tinctures by the moon, not by Solar days or weeks.
- Remove the tincture when you are satisfied no more colour is transferring from the material to the menstruum, (the liquid). There are many approaches to this process. Some require precise timing based on astrological and other esoteric calculations which lead to a higher quality product. However, as mentioned, we are dealing only with the basics here, so 8 weeks is a good minimum to yield an effective tincture and transfer the most important compounds to the alcohol.
- Pour your finished tincture through a fine filter such as a clean paper coffee filter set in a funnel.
- Fold the edges of the paper over on to the now exhausted material and press gently with the back of a spoon to squeeze out the last of the moisture while being careful not to rip the paper and allow solids into your clean tincture.
- Cover your filtered tincture and let it sit undisturbed a day or two to settle and sediment.
- Pour off or syphon off the clear liquid into clean sealable bottles or jars and label them accordingly.
- Make sure you have recorded the whole process and any pertinent information in a journal or formulary for future reference.
An oleoresin tincture of Frankincense or Myyrh
We will choose to make this type of tincture when we desire only the resin and essential oil content of the Frankincense or Myrrh, with no water-soluble gum. We will use the purest alcohol we can find which is 95%-96% alcohol, branded as “Everclear” in the U.S.. This is likely the closest most of us can get to a food grade pure alcohol since is is very difficult for us to create an alcohol that is purer. This is partly due to alcohol’s hydrophilic nature and its ability to absorb moisture from the air.
The resin and essential oil portions of Frankincense, Myrrh and other oleo-gum-resins have received most of our interest and research lately, and are known to be the source of many of their medicinal compounds. In the case of the Frankincense family, these are mainly the Boswellic acids, AKBA, Incensole and Incensole acetate which so far have only been found in Boswellia Papyrifera, B. Sacra/Carterii and B. Serrata.
This tincture offers us the complete array of compounds in both the essential oil and resin portions of our oleo-gum-resins. It collects a negligible amount of water-soluble gum and is most useful in preparing liniments, and serves as a perfume tincture which captures all the aromatic compounds of the material and can transfer them easily to our perfume or fragrant product. The combined fragrance profile of both resin and essential oils is richer than that of the essential oils alone. In traditional herbal practice, tinctures are most often prepared in a ratio of 1 part dry herbal material to 5 parts menstruum. This can be used as a standard for Frankincense and for Myrrh tinctures used in the above applications.
An alcohol extract of Frankincense or Myrrh
A more concentrated version of an oleoresin tincture that serves preparations such as the “Myrrh anti-fungal lacquer” and produces a tincture from which we can gently evaporate the alcohol to create an absolute or resinoid for perfumery, salves, cremes or internal applications such as gel caps and suppositories.
Though we could, in many cases, use a 1:5 ratio of menstruum to material since we are going to evaporate the alcohol anyway, a 1:3 ratio performs as well and wastes less alcohol.
The instructions are the same as above, but if we wish to create a solid product, after maceration and filtering our tincture, we set it out in a shallow pan, covered with a loose cloth and allow the alcohol to evaporate at a low temperature. Once a solid is available, we will collect it and store it in an airtight container to be powdered or melted and added to our products. This extract, if devoid of water-soluble gum, will dissolve readily in hot oils that may be used as the bases for salves and cosmetic cremes.
A Holistic tincture of Frankincense or Myrrh
There is something to be said for the concept of Holism, where we create products that are as close to their natural state as possible. Where we strive to keep our processing to a minimum, maintain the integrity, life force and “intelligence” of the original plant material intact. Keeping its components as close to the proportions and ratios present in nature is one step we can choose in this direction.
We do this by matching the ratio of water to alcohol in our menstruum to the ratio of gum to oleoresin in the material.
In Myrrh, Commiphora Myrrh, we find a consensus that water soluble gum takes up 65% of the material. We will prepare a menstruum with 65% water and 35% alcohol.
These 3 Boswellia species all contain between 18% and 25% water-soluble gum so we will have to settle on a rougher estimate. With variations in climate, geography, and differences between first and consecutive harvests each season, no two batches of Frankincense are alike, and it is not realistic to expect any kind of precise foreknowledge of the constituents of Frankincense without sophisticated testing equipment on hand, which few of us have access to. For this reason we must proceed with an educated guess, a feel for the material, our intuition or whatever works for us individually, keeping in mind there are few true absolutes in life and that in these more esoteric pursuits, our intent is also an important part of the formula.
Since the Ontario Liqueur board has started selling a high-proof, 76% alcohol Vodka branded “Spirytus”, I have found it most convenient to use it as the menstruum for holistic tinctures of the above Boswellia types.
These tinctures are made as the others above.
Lastly, to close a rather lengthy post, let’s share an Aqueous solution, tea.
A traditional remedy for congestion, coughs and colds in the Arabian peninsula, at least in Qatar, and taken across the Islamic world as a pre-natal tea to increase intelligence and bravery of children as decreed by the Prophet Muhammad.
A Frankincense Tea
- 1 teaspoon of Frankincense tears in a cup
- Add 1 cup of cold water
- Cover loosely
- Let sit overnight
- Take by the teaspoonful during the course of the next day.
- Used for coughs, colds, congestion and other cold and flu-like symptoms.
OK, back to work now where I’m preparing a batch of pure oleoresin extracted from fresh Boswellia Serrata from India. Lovely, fragrant, flowing, shiny, caramel stuff perfect for making salves and cremes that deliver Boswellic acids.
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And of course.
Remember to ALWAYS take clear notes!
Your future self will thank you!!