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A distillation of Frankincense Frereana

Frankincense Frereana-Freshly distilled Essential Oil in Separatory funnel
Frankincense Frereana-Freshly distilled Essential Oil in Separatory funnel. 

As mentioned in earlier posts, Frankincense Frereana is a relatively rare type of Frankincense in the West. Both the resin and good quality essential oil are difficult to find and much more expensive than other Frankincense types. Despite these drawbacks, or perhaps because of them, it is well worth experiencing at least once.

Fresh co-op harvested Frankincense Frereana- from Somaliland-" Maydi or Yemenite Chewing Gum"
Fresh co-op harvested Frankincense Frereana- from Somaliland-” Maydi or Yemenite Chewing Gum”

Boswellia Frereana is native to the mountainous regions of Somaliland, the Somali Puntland and to a lesser degree westward through Kenya. Though it has been transplanted to Yemen and possibly Oman over the generations, it is not indigenous there, nor can it supply local demand. Most of the Frankincense Frereana essential oil that is sold as Arabian is purchased in Somaliland and Somalia and distilled in countries across the Red sea which are more economically developed. Not as prolific as the well known Frankincense Sacra/Carterii, it is used by the well to do in Arabia as a high-end chewing gum, in cosmetics, perfume and as incense.  Though culturally important, due to the demand and high price, harvesters often keep only the lower quality scraps and leftovers for their own use since resin sales provide their income and sustenance for the whole year.

Boswellia Frereana Somaliland
Boswellia Frereana tree Somaliland

Translucent and golden, B. Frereana resin could very well be the gold that came as a gift along with Frankincense and Myrrh in scriptures Also called Coptic Frankincense, and Yemenite chewing gum, the oleoresin of Boswellia Frereana is used extensively as incense, alone or combined with other ingredients.  A traditional Somali incense “Amber” called Unsii is prepared from Frankincense Frereana and other aromatics according to local and often secret family recipes.

Frankincense Frereana is traditionally used for oral care, peptic ulcers, and considered antiseptic and anti inflammatory for both the gastrointestinal and the urinary tract. It is believed that the body benefits from these therapeutic actions through use of the essential oil and chewing the raw resin. Externally, Frankincense Frereana is considered excellent for joint inflammations and mature skin, making it ideal in rejuvenative and  anti-aging skin products. From an aromatherapy perspective it is uplifting and a restorative, calming to nerves and emotions. It helps attune the mind and heart to meditative and spiritual/religeous practice. Possessing a warm, amber scent with hints of honey, candy, spice and resinous wood, Maydi, as it is called locally, is one of the most distinguished members of the Frankincense family.

Similar to Our Pine Spruce and Fir saps, Elemi, Mastic and Copal, the hardened sap of Boswellia Frereana, is a pure oleoresin. Unlike most other types of Frankincense, it has little to no water soluble gum, only resins and volatile oils This distinction gives it, and all the aforementioned oleoresins some unique qualities.

  • They all dissolve easily in alcohol and warm vegetable oils which makes them ideal for use in cosmetics.
  • They burn as incense on a coal or heater in a clean and most fragrant way, leaving little to no residue.
  • They can all be hydro distilled directly in the water with little fear of scorching or burning.
  • They yield a relatively high percent of essential oil which makes extraction of essential oils viable with a non-commercial sized home still. Between 5% and 10%. Much higher than most other essential oil sources.
  • After distillation of their essential oils, they leave behind excellent rosins with many therapeutic properties and practical applications.
  • I believe they can all be “dry distilled though I need to confirm this by trying it.
Pressure cooker pot still for essential oils
Pressure cooker pot still for distilling essential oils

In this particular distillation I used a relatively small 21.5 liter pot still, which is easy to make at home. You can find instructions in my post “How to build a  kitchen still for essential oils at home. It is eminently suitable for hydro distilling essential oils from oleoresins and other high yield materials at home. With the inclusion of a suspended basket, its capabilities can be extended to accommodate a wider variety of materials through steam distillation. The practical elegance of this particular design is due to the thick bottom and milled seal of the lid which makes it a hassle-free apparatus. Its moderate size allows one to distill sufficient quantities for personal use and small scale production. There is a 40 liter model on the market for those who wish to expand their distilling practices further, though the larger model is more difficult to come by second hand. This is a good still to start with. Solid and versatile it makes it easy for anyone to explore the ancient art of distillation.

Charging the still

Frankincense Frereana Hydro Distillation. Grinding the oleo-resin.
Frankincense Frereana Hydro Distillation. Grinding the oleo-resin.
Frankincense Frereana Hydro Distillation. Grinding the oleo-resin.
Frankincense Frereana Hydro Distillation.

In this 21.5 pint or liter ” All American” pressure cooker adapted to distillation. I added

  • 12 liters water.
  • 3 kilograms coarsely ground oleoresin of Frankincense Frereana. Though I felt it was uncomfortably close to the top of the still, I started with a gentle, moderate temperature, to avoid forcing material over into the receiver.
  • I used an Allihn condenser, but a straight tubed Liebig condenser would have worked just as well.
  • I ran this distillation for 10 hours, 2 hours longer than I would normally, to extract more of the warm amber notes from the resin.

Years ago I purchased essential oil of B. Frereana from a large and well known company and was greatly disappointed in the quality. It smelled more like cleaning fluid than Frankincense. Sometimes you have to do things yourself if you want them done right. I am very happy with this distillation.  Amber with honey, a touch of  black pepper and ginger, with a hint of sweet lemon candy. It is warm and uplifting, drying down to a musky, woody and sensuous soft amber.   The scent of Boswellia Frereana essential oil properly distilled from good quality fresh material, is heavenly. One can see why it is called “The king of Frankincense”.

One of the perks of distilling your own essential oils, is that after separating the volatile oils, you can add the distillate to your bath. (Or make a cold creme?). A half liter of the distilled waters of Frankincense Frereana in a hot bath caressing you, is truly a rare and exotic treat.  Calming, uplifting, soothing, grounding, sensuous and stimulating. Did I mention all the Frankincenses are ruled by the Sun and considered aphrodisiacs?

Fresh Fairtrade Frankincense Frereana, Natural Chewing Gum, Incense and Medicine.
Fresh Fairtrade Frankincense Frereana, Natural Chewing Gum, Incense and Medicine.

The material I used in this distillation is the same oleoresin I sell in my Etsy shop. It is fresh 2013 co-op harvested in the mountains of Somaliland by a group of traditional harvester families who have passed care of the trees down from generation to generation for many decades. The harvesters are traditionally locked in to the low prices, unscrupulous practices of foreign buyers and middlemen. These buyers dominate the local market and offer harvesters a minimum return to keep their own profit as high as possible. The current arrangement is impoverishing for the harvesters, many become indebted to the middlemen. Till recently they have been completely dependent on these buyers for lack of alternative markets for their resins.

Young Frankincense harvester bringing his daily harvest down from dangerous rocky terrain where the Frankincense Frereana  trees grow.
Young Frankincense harvester bringing his day’s collection of resin down from dangerous rocky terrain. Everyone participates. Frankincense Frereana trees grow wild, often in the most inaccessible and precarious places. Injuries are a common occupational hazard and modern medical facilities non-existent for the mountain clans.

Now, with the increase of global communication, travel and commerce coupled with heightened consumer awareness, new and more profitable markets are becoming available to them and some of the middlemen can be bypassed.  This creates a better return for the harvesters, and a place where co-ops can shine. This is where we, the informed western consumer can make a difference with our purchasing power. We need to educate ourselves because we can make a difference with our individual and collective purchases.

Our world is a beautiful little garden in a big universe. It is our very own Apothecary’s garden that gives us all of our medicine and fragrance, all our food and sustenance. We are each individually responsible for it, and it is up to us to tend to it any way we can. Somaliland is famous not only for its Frankincense Frereana, but also for its fine Frankincense Sacra/Carterii, Myrrh and Opoponax, (scented Myrrh), which this co-op also collects.

The organizer of the co-op, B.H., inherited Frankincense and Myrrh trees from his family. Living in the west from a young age, he gave up his western citizenship and took responsibility for their care, harvest and sale.  His co-op has grown to  include other families and clans. He has built a small school, a clinic and purchased an “ambulance” for them. He helps get them out of debt to the buyers, and makes sure they receive a fair price for their resins. He coordinates the harvesting, collection and transportation of resins by camel and donkey from the mountains to the  coast  for sorting and grading, where the buyers await. There are no roads to these remote areas, though the footpaths are obvious after hundreds of years of trading Frankincense.

He mediates between individuals, families and clans, sources markets, organizes shipping and deals with the inevitable red tape. It is a big job, one that requires dedication, passion and commitment. I realize I can’t personally right all the wrongs, be in all the places I would like to be, or make the world the kind of place I would like to live in, all on my own. However, I can support those people who are out there doing the work. Even if it is only in some small way. The combined power of many people choosing to educate and inform themselves about how their fragrance, medicine and food comes to them, coupled with small informed choices that reflect their values, is immense and world changing. We forget how much power we have with our choices, our small purchases, the combined clicks of our mouses. This is the silver lining to our capitalistic system. Our money does indeed talk, and it will say what ever we tell it to.

Fresh distilled Frankincense Frereana-2013 harvest Somaliland-Fairtrade
Fresh distilled Frankincense Frereana-2013 harvest Somaliland-Fairtrade

I believe if we all do what we can, no matter how small, the world will quickly change for the better. If you would like to experience the fresh fair trade oleoresin and the newly distilled essential oil of Frankincense Frereana I invite you to visit my shop onEtsy. If you choose to distill your own essential oils, remember, you will always get better results if you treat nature well, and always, always, take clear notes. Your future self will thank you.   Dan

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Cowboy boots, Frankincense and fragrant tips for travellers

Since travelling in the Middle east and Africa, I haven’t been writing as much as I should. My apologies.

Lots of great new business opportunities, connections and relationships, especially around free trade, sustainability of resources, ethics of commerce, and general free and happy exchanges for all in the Frankincense trade, my favourite topics.

While travelling, I am setting up a new website  and online store that specializes in ethical, sustainable and free trade Frankincense and Myrrh varieties.  Not as easy to source as one might think. I may throw in some hand harvested Labdanum and mastic along the way, but first, I am aiming for 6 types of Frankincense  and at least three types of medicinal and fragrant Myrrh. Oleoresins and essential oils. One can aspire..

Dealing directly with cooperative managers who are actively reinvesting profits into improving living standards for the harvesting families and clans is exiting and inspiring. I will be sure to fill in the details once wi-fi is more consistent.

Black Western cowboy boots on a white background
Black Western cowboy boots on a white background (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The long row of cowboy boots portrayed in a photo that you will find in my “About” gallery to the right, is a fairly accurate account of how many cowboy boots I usually have in use at the same time. I rotate, have favourites and standbys, replace them with new or used pairs as they each in turn, transcend to the great beyond where holey boots go.  High , or low Cuban heels, but pointy evil toes are the best.

Travelling in hot Mediterranean and African climates, wearing cowboy boots, may seem impractical,  but, did I bring any other type of footwear with me?

No.

Will I be remembered in far away places as the gentleman with the twirly moustache? Or the silly foreigner who wore cowboy boots in the hot sun?

Only time will tell..

What I won’t be however, is the silly foreigner who wore smelly cowboy boots in the hot sun.

I discovered that a few drops of Frankincense Rivae essential oil on socks or between toes, works miracles. This should be considered the sacred Frankincense as far as I’m concerned.  A lifesaver for those one travels with.  My feet, socks, boots, and probably my breath, are always fragrant!! None of the usual Cedar, Tea Tree and other essential oils have had any positive effect.

Summer boots used to come off in private only, with plenty of ventilation and fresh air. Not anymore.

Today, the little lightbulb in my brain finally went off, when I suddenly “Got” what that extra, sweet fragrance is, that  distinguishes Boswellia Rivae  from all other types of Frankincense.  I think my feet or boots had sucked up all the actual “Frankincense” fragrance, and what was left was pure Palo Santo. Yes! Palo Santo! That is the perfect description that has waited on the tip of my tongue all along.

Mind you the Frankincense has likely been increasing blood circulation to my brain cells, leading to improved mental function and concentration, and this very kind of “Ahah” scenario.

Of course I have read umpteen times that the Palo Santo tree is of the  Burseraceae, the same family as the Frankincense trees. But till today, could not name that extra fragrance in B. Rivae as Palo Santo. Sweet, sacred, yummy Palo Santo and rich warm Frankincense mingled and mixed, and dancing a little  dervish together in the deserts of Ethiopia.  Now there is a sexy spring image. Birds and bees and resins in the trees. Now perhaps you can understand why I go on so about “Sweet Frankincense Rivae” in my posts and in the store.

On the subject already, it is important to note that, (at this time), among the 3 types of Frankincense that are indigenous to Ethiopia, only Boswellia Rivae is collected through a cooperative. Thus guaranteeing a fair price to the collectors, many of whom have family traditions of caring for and harvesting from the trees for generations, and who rely on  much of their yearly income from the fragrant resins they collect.

Boswellia Frankincense Rivae Resin- Ethhiopia. Freshly collected
Boswellia Frankincense Rivae Resin- Ethhiopia. Freshly collected

Collectives are one of the most effective grassroots mechanisms for social, economic, ecological and even political change. There is nothing like people working together for their mutual benefit. I think it’s a beautiful thing, makes the world a more beautiful, fragrant, abundant and peaceful place. One plant at a time. And I like to support them anyway I can.

I imagine I will likely ask you to join me in supporting these Frankincense cooperatives in the near future. Abundance for all I say!

Unfortunately, due to the great demand,  expanding roads and agriculture, fires, overgrazing, improper harvesting methods, and over harvesting, the more famous Ethiopian Frankincense, Boswellia Papyrifera, has suffered, and the numbers of healthy resin bearing trees has been steadily dropping. Stressed trees are yielding only 16% seed viability as opposed to 80% in healthy trees.

This has not gone unnoticed and one has to admire the many and varied efforts, the ongoing investment of resources and manpower the Ethiopian government, research institutions and conservation authorities are committing to correct this trend. From educating growers and harvesters, to propagating, supplying, planting and protecting viable nursery stock, and funding ongoing research into ways of maintaining the sustainability of this ancient and treasured crop, they continue to come up with new and improved methods to reverse the downward trend.

Frankincense Papyrifera is used extensively by orthodox churches around the world, it is a traditional incense used daily by Ethiopians in their coffee ceremonies, (which means it is used A LOT),  and a major natural resource traded globally. Boswellia Papyrifera is a pretty special Frankincense.

It doesn’t yield a lot of essential oil when distilled, often less than 5%, and it is hard to find it on the market, but it is one oleoresin and essential oil that everyone should experience at least once in their lives. It is the most mellow, inspiring, dignified, self-assured and lofty  Frankincense…   B. Papyrifera has the highest content of incensole and incensole acetate of all the Frankincense family, which are its own special identifying markers in the laboratory, those psychoactive compounds that can create feelings of heightened spirituality and wellbeing, reduce depression and anxiety in laboratory studies.

So from an ethical and sustainable point of view we have covered 2 out of 3 of Ethiopia’s unique Frankincense types. We have one left. ( No I won’t neglect the Neglecta, if that’s what you were thinking,,) Though B. Neglecta may not have the fame and market demand of its brothers in the perfume world, it is a valuable medicinal. Its most obvious properties are as a decongestant and rubificant. Though seemingly neglected, there have been almost no studies done on this unique medicinal, and references used here are from my own use, and experience of its effects on myself and others.

Perhaps neglected for not being as exotic, conspicuous or just for its name. I believe Frankincense Neglecta is actually holding its own in the background of the local ecology, safely hidden from the limelight and over harvesting.

Essential Oils of Boswellia-Frankincense Rivae and Neglecta
Essential Oils of Boswellia-Frankincense Rivae and Neglecta-In the Etsy store.

Similar to Fir and Spruce oleoresins, the fragrance of B. Neglecta is grounding and elevating, it leaves one inhaling easily and deeply. It rounds out the sharp corners of anxiety and panic in the chest, calming the heart and the pangs associated with stress,while it helps break up phlegm, and expel it.

Not a bad days work for an unappreciated tree.  There is no Frankincense type that is better for coughs, colds and congestion than Frankincense Neglecta.  For instructions on how to make your own Frankincense Neglecta whole oleoresin medicated chest rub, please see my post“Frankincense oil, a cough, cold and chest rub.

So, travelling tips, consider sandals next time you travel, and take some exhilarating brain boosting Boswellia Rivae with you.  Disinfectant and definitely a mood elevator. It is almost a complete perfume on its own. I have no doubt that if you try it, you too will fall in love with it. Especially if you have a weakness for Palo Santo.

Travelling with a cold, cough or congestion? Frankincense Neglecta oil in a steam inhalation, or mixed with olive oil 20 drops essential oil to 1/2 cup Olive or any vegetable oil, is an effective and fragrant item to keep in your first aid kit and rub on your chest day and night.

Frankincense Papyrifera? Well, if you have the opportunity to smell it fresh, burned or as an essential oil, don’t pass on it . You won’t know what you are missing!

And buy some sandals already!

Dan

 

 

 

 

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